By Mark Rowlands
During this second variation, the writer has considerably revised his ebook all through, updating the ethical arguments and including a bankruptcy on animal minds. Importantly, instead of being a polemic on animal rights, this publication can be a thought of and resourceful assessment of ethical conception as explored in the course of the factor of animal rights.
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Extra info for Animal Rights: Moral Theory and Practice
And since utilitarianism is committed to this exclusion, utilitarianism is, therefore, also committed to a prior standard of legitimacy. But, then, utilitarianism cannot be thought of as providing the sole standard of morality. It must already incorporate, in a tacit manner, 50 Animal Rights prior standards of moral legitimacy. In other words, in order for utilitarianism to work, there would have to be prior, non-utilitarian, standards of morality. Utilitarianism, therefore, cannot provide the sole standard of morality.
They are indirect possessors of entitlements. Even with this qualification in place, however, option 3(a), and the intelligence criterion upon which it is based, faces formidable difficulties. In particular, it is difficult to see how intelligence can be the crucial feature determining which entities are, and which entities are not, possessors of moral entitlements, direct or otherwise. Part of the worry here is that there are fundamental difficulties in identifying any non-arbitrary level of intelligence as constituting the criterion of moral entitlement.
John Rawls has argued that what is required, as a non-utilitarian standard of morality, is an adequate theory of justice: Rawls regards this as the fundamental difference between his account of justice and that of the utilitarians. 13 An adequate theory of justice, for Rawls, limits the admissible conceptions of the good, and so those conceptions the pursuit of which violates the principles of justice are ruled out absolutely: the claims to pursue inadmissible conceptions have no weight at all.
Animal Rights: Moral Theory and Practice by Mark Rowlands