By Niklas Luhmann
Synthesizing methods as disparate because the philosophy of language, old linguistics, deconstruction, and formal platforms theory/cybernetics, A platforms concept of Religion takes on vital issues that variety from religion's that means and evolution to secularization, turning a long time of sociological assumptions on their head. It presents us with a clean vocabulary and a clean philosophical and sociological method of one in all society's such a lot primary phenomena.
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Additional resources for A systems theory of religion
And distinguishing is such a constitutive moment in the operation of observing that we cannot negate away the one side of the distinction without destroying the possibility of observation itself. In the operative use of distinctions, we cannot assume that the other side of the distinction is insignificant because it is not at all there. Although that other side has to be excluded from the respectively chosen signification, it also has to be accessible for additional operations. The boundary between one and the other side of a distinction cannot be imagined at all unless we think that it could be crossed and the other side could be signified as well.
But this sense takes on the form of a paradox, that fundamental paradox of the sameness of what is different. IV In observing how the world and the observer are unobservable, one has begun to observe religion. A few matters still have to be clarified, however. And some additional distinctions distinguished. The distinction between observer and world is different from the distinction between observer and observed, for it moves in the direction of the distinction between the observable and unobservable with which the world observes itself (though we do not know how).
These networks point to the formation of a system and, more precisely, the formation of operatively closed autopoietic systems. Under additional conditions, they are capable not only of differentiating themselves but also of distinguishing between themselves and their environment. The distinction between system and environment is thus doubled onto itself and, according to our premises, does so on the side of connective capacity—on the side of a system. 29 And in order to clarify what has been happening, I have inserted an additional distinction into the tautology of a distinction (that is distinguishing itself): the distinction between system and environment.
A systems theory of religion by Niklas Luhmann