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A formal language to do as much will require some or all of these: symbols for various logical notions and for variables, some for functions or relations, plus auxiliary symbols. It will also be necessary to specify rules for putting the symbols together to make formulas, for interpreting the meaning and determining the truth of these formulas, and for making inferences in deductions. For a concrete example, consider elementary number theory. The set of elements under discussion is the set of natural numbers N = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, .

8. Stick several simple statements together with suitable connectives. 9. This should be straightforward. 10. Ditto. 11. To make sure you get all the subformulas, write out the formula in official form with all the parentheses. 12. Proceed by induction on the length or number of connectives of the formula. Hints for Chapter 2. 1. Use truth tables. 2. Proceed by induction on the length of δ or on the number of connectives in δ. 3. 2. 4. 1 and the definitions of the abbreviations. 5. Use truth tables.

6) A “worst-case” countable language, L1 : • Constant symbols: c1, c2 , c3, . . • For each k ≥ 1, k-place function symbols: f1k , f2k , f3k , . . • For each k ≥ 1, k-place relation symbols: P1k , P2k , P3k , . . This language has no use except as an abstract example. It remains to specify how to form valid formulas from the symbols of a first-order language L. This will be more complicated than it was for LP . In fact, we first need to define a type of expression in L which has no counterpart in propositional logic.

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A problem course in mathematical logic : is a freeware mathematics text by Stefan Bilaniuk

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