By Neal H. Atebara, MD
Discusses present purposes of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. provides optics of the human eye; easy recommendations of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and call lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, category of visible functionality deficits, sufferer evaluate and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.
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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
As indicated in Figure l - lSC, stimulated emission occurs when an incident photon of the proper frequency interacts with an atom in the upper energy state. The result is the emission of a photon of the same wavelength and the return of the atom to its lower energy state. The emitted photon also has the same phase and direction of propagation as the incident photon. The active medium is an atomic or molecular environment that supports sti mulated emission. The active medium allows a large number of atoms to be energized above the ground state so that stimulated emission can occur.
I-«_-- T 50 cm , 1 1 • A developed by Kevin M Miller; MD, and rendered by C. H. S-mm aperture Image plane l1 mm • T Figure 2-13 A, A smaller pinhole restricts light from a single object point to a smaller spot in the image. 8, Object points can be closer together before their images overlap, and thus the image contains more detail. This analysis ignores diffraction effects. (Illustration developed by C. T 50 em - - -.. >-- - 50 em 1 • A Kevin M. Miller, MD, and rendered by l1 mm • H. ) B CHAPTER 2: Ge ometri c Optics.
These laws are summarized in the following sections. Optical Media and Refractive Index Light travels through a variety of mate rials, such as air, glass, plastics, liquids, crystals, some biological tissues, the vacuum of space) and even some metals. A medium is any materi al that transmits light. 40 • Clin ical Optics Light travels at different speeds in different media. Light moves fastest in a vacuum and slower th rough any material. The refractive index of an optical medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the medium and is usually denoted in mathematical equations by the lowercase letter n.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by Neal H. Atebara, MD